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1857 PRE-CIVIL WAR BOOK ON HYGIENE FOR FAMILIES AND SCHOOLS: HOW TO STAY HEALTHY. 8 inches tall hardcover, x, 424 pages, original brown cloth binding, blindstamped design on covers, gilt title on spine, pencil signature and inscription of 'E. C. Gaines, Bethel, Mi, Sept 1858 / Phyllis bought this'. Minimal chipping top of spine, scattered light foxing, small stain to edge of later pages, otherwise unmarked and very good. CONTENTS: Growth and Renovation; Muscular Motion; Rest and Sleep; Digestion and Nutrition; The Circulation of the Blood; Breathing and Ventilation; The Laws of the Skin and of Cleanliness; Temperature and Clothing; The Brain and Nerves; The Senses. PREFACE. 'Now, although we have many excellent works of anatomy and physiology, accompanied with occasional and incidental remarks on Hygiene; yet, for this specific purpose, we have nothing which is happily adapted to the immediate wants of schools and families. At least, we have no work of Hygiene which is exactly suitable to be used as a class-book in the district schools. The object of this book is to fill the vacancy. It does, indeed, contain anatomy and physiology; but they are only induced as a means of explanation, illustration, or argument. My aim is, to take men and women and children as they are, and teach them, first, how to keep what health they already possess; and, secondly, how daily and hourly to manufacture more.' WILLIAM ANDRUS ALCOTT, M.D. [1798-1859] was an American educator, educational reformer, physician, and author of 108 books. His works, which include a wide range of topics including educational reform, physical education, school house design, family life, and diet, are still widely cited today. He was an early advocate of birth control. He was the apparant inventor of a student desk with individual shelves and a hinged blackboard that could swing forward or back, used in the School of Human Culture opened by his cousin Bronson in 1834. While he was successful as a teacher, in the summer of 1824 he suffered an attack of the disfiguring, dangerous skin infection erysipelas, and about this time was beginning to suffer from tuberculosis. He would suffer symptoms of both for the remainder of his life. He began studying medicine, with the thought that the extra knowledge would aid his teaching. His formal study of medicine was brief. In the winter of 1825-26 he attended 'a regular course of medical studies' in New Haven, Connecticut. In March 1826 he was granted a license to practice medicine. In addition to teaching, he practiced medicine at least until 1829. Alcott was a founding member (in 1850) and the first president of the American Vegetarian Society. He was also the author of The Vegetable Diet As Sanctioned by Medical Men and By Experience in All Ages. He also founded The American Physiological Society in 1837, the world's first physiological society.